Abstract: 
1 Introduction to VLSI Design
Introduction
2 Combinational Circuit Design
Components of Combinational Design ' Multiplexer and Decoder
Multiplexer Based Design of Combinational Circuits
Implementation of Full Adder using Multiplexer
Decoder
Implementation of Full Adder using Decoder
3 Programmable Logic Devices
Types of Programmable Logic Devices
Combinational Logic Examples
PROM ' Fixed AND Array and Programmable OR Array
Implementation of Functions using PROM
PLA ' Programmable Logic Array
PLA – Implementation Example
4 Programmable Array Logic
PAL ' Programmable Array Logic
Comparison of PROM, PLA and PAL
Implementation of a Function using PAL
Types of PAL Outputs
Device Examples
5 Review of Flip'Flops
Introduction to Sequential Circuits
R'S Latch and Clocked R'S Latch
D Flip Flop
J'K Flip Flop
Master Slave Operation
Edge Triggered Operation
6 Sequential Circuits
Clocking of Flip'flops
Setup and Hold Times
Moore Circuit
Mealy Circuit
Clocking Rules
Sequential Circuits – Design Rules
7 Sequential Circuit Design
Sequential Circuit Design Basics
Design of a 4'bit Full Adder using D Flip'flop
Pattern Identifier
State Graph
Transition Table
8 MSI Implementation of Sequential Circuits
Implementation of Pattern Identifier revisited
MUX Based Realization
ROM Based Realization
PAL Implementation
9 Design of Sequential Circuits using One Hot Controller
Design of a Vending Machine as an example
State Graph
State Table
Implementation using PAL
10 Verilog Modeling of Combinational Circuits
Introduction to Verilog
Levels of Abstraction
Realization of Combinational Circuits
Verilog Code for Multiplexers and Demultiplexers
Realization of a Full Adder
Behavioral, Data Flow and Structural Realization
Realization of a Magnitude Comparator
Design Example
11 Modeling of Verilog Sequential Circuits ' Core Statements
Design of a D Flip Flop
Realization of a Register
Realization of a Counter
Realization of a Non–retriggerable Monoshot
12 Modeling of Verilog Sequential Circuits ' Core Statements (Continued)
Realization of a Right Shift Register
Realization of a Parallel to Serial Converter
Realization of a Model State Machine
Pattern Sequence Detector as a Design Example
13 RTL Coding Guidelines
RTL Coding Guidelines – Introduction
Dos and Don’ts for Asynchronous and Synchronous Logic Circuit Design
RTL Coding Style
Separation of Combinational and Sequential Circuits
“if ' else if – else” statements for MUX and Priority Encoder Realizations
Verilog Directives – Case Statements
Operators
14 Coding Organization ' Complete Realization
Introduction to Coding Organization
Design Module – a Model
Complete Code for Combinational and Sequential Circuits
15 Coding Organization ' Complete Realization (Continued)
Complete Code for Sequential Circuits
' Right Shift Register
' Parallel to Serial Converter
' Model State Machine
' Pattern Sequence Detector
Test Bench for Combinational Circuits
16 Writing a Test Bench
Test bench for simple design – AND gate
Test bench for Combinational Circuits
Test bench for Sequential Circuits
17 System Design using ASM Chart
Top'down Design Methodology
ASM Chart
Rules of Drawing ASM Chart
18 Example of System Design using ASM Chart
Design of Bus Arbiter
ASM Chart
State Table
Implementation of Bus Arbiter using MUX and D Flip'flops
Specification of a Traffic Light Controller
State Graph
ASM Chart of Traffic Light Controlle
19 Examples of System Design using Sequential Circuits
Algorithm of Traffic Light Controller
ASM Table
Hardware Realization using MUX and D Flip'flops
Traffic Light Controller – ROM Realization ' ROM Table
20 Examples of System Design using Sequential Circuits (Continued)
Dice Game ' Introduction
Algorithm for Dice Game
Architecture
ASM Chart for Dice Game
21 Microprogrammed Design
Introduction to Microprogrammed Design of Digital Systems
ASM Chart for a Microprogrammed Design
Microprogrammed ROM Table
Comparison of the Conventional ROM and the Microprogrammed ROM Approaches
Single Qualifier, Double address Design
22 Microprogrammed Design (Continued)
Single Qualifier, Single Address (SQSA) System Design
ASM chart for SQSA Microprogrammed Implementation
Microprogrammed Table
Implementation of SQSA System using Microprogrammed ROM, MUX and a Counter
Dice Game using Microprogrammed SQSA System
ASM Chart and Microprogrammed Table for Dice game
23 Design Flow of VLSI Circuits
Top'down Design Methodology
Bottom'up Design Methodology
Simulation of Verilog Codes using Modelsim
Test Bench and Simulation of a Simple Design
24 Simulation of Combinational Circuits
Simulation of Combinational Circuits
Simulation Waveforms
' Simple Gates
' Simple Boolean Expressions
' Shift Register
' MUX and DEMUX
25 Simulation of Combinational and Sequential Circuits
Simulation Waveforms
' a Magnitude Comparator
' a Design Example
' a D Flip'flop
' Registers
' a Counter
26 Analysis of Waveforms using Modelsim
Analysis of Waveforms
' a Counter
' a Non'retriggerable Monoshot
' a Right Shift Register
' a Parallel to Serial Converter
' a Model State Machine
27 Analysis of Waveforms using Modelsim (Continued)
Analysis of Waveforms of a Model State Machine (Continued)
Analysis of Waveforms of a Pattern Sequence Detector
28 ModelSim Simulation Tool
ModelSim Command Summary
29 Synthesis Tool
More Features of Modelsim
Synplify Synthesis Tool
Features of Synplify Tool
30 Synthesis Tool (Continued)
Synthesis Tool – Command Summary
Analysis of Design Example using Synplify Tool
31 Synplify Tool ' Schematic Circuit Diagram View
Analysis of the Report File generated by Synplify Tool
Commands Continued – Optimized Verilog File using Synplify Tool
Viewing Verilog Code as RTL Schematic Circuit Diagrams
32 Technology View using Synplify Tool
Technology View using Synplify Tool
Warnings and Errors – Log Report
Comparison of FPGA Performance of different Vendors for a Design
Creation of Errors Deliberately and Correction using Modelsim and Synplify Tools
33 Synopsys Full and Parallel Cases
Compilation/Load Errors and Correction using Modelsim and Synplify Tools (Continued)
Synopsys Full Case ' RTL View
Synopsys Parallel Case ' RTL View
Xilinx Place & Route Tool – Design Manager
Xilinx Place & Route Tool – Command Summary
Place & Route Tool Report
34 Xilinx Place & Route Tool
Xilinx Place & Route Tool Report
Creation of “Bit” File
Synthesis Revisited – Waveform Analysis of Optimized File
Various Report Files of Xilinx Place & Route Tool
Back Annotation in DOS Mode using Xilinx Place & Route Commands
35 Xilinx Place & Route Tool (Continued)
Back Annotation in DOS Mode using Xilinx Place & Route Commands (Continued)
Simulation of Back Annotated File using Modelsim Tool
Analysis of Back Annotated Waveforms to get the Gate Delays of a Design
User Constraint File
Xilinx Floor Planner
Design of PCI Arbiter using ASM Chart ' Introduction
36 PCI Arbiter Design using ASM Chart
Design of PCI Arbiter (Continued)
ASM Chart
Verilog Code of PCI Arbiter
Test Bench for the PCI Arbiter Design
Simulation Results after Back annotation
Synplify Results
Xilinx Place and Route Results
37 Design of Memories ' ROM
On'chip Dual Address ROM Design
Test Bench for Dual Address ROM Design
Simulation Results
Synplify and Place & Route Results
On'chip Single Address ROM Design
Test Bench for Single Address ROM Design
Simulation Results
Synplify and Place & Route Results
38 Design of Memories ' RAM
Design of On'chip Dual RAM
RTL Verilog Code
Test Bench for Dual RAM Design
Simulation Results
Synplify and Xilinx Place & Route Results
39 Design of External RAM
Controller Design for External RAM
Verilog Code for Controller of External RAM
Test Bench for External RAM – GO'No GO Test
Simulation Waveform
Synplify and Xilinx Place & Route Results
40 Design of Arithmetic Circuits
Principle of Pipelining
Partitioning of a Design
Serial Signed Adder Design
Synplify and Xilinx Place & Route Results
Test Bench for Serial Adder
Comparison of a Serial Adder and a Parallel Adder Implementation
Simulation Waveform
41 Design of Arithmetic Circuits (Continued)
Design of Eight Inputs Signed Parallel Adder
Design Partition
Verilog Code for the Signed Parallel Adder
Test Bench for Parallel Adder
Simulation Waveform
Synplify and Xilinx Place & Route Results
Parallel, Pipelined Multiplier Design – A new Algorithm for Fast Implementation
Verilog Code for the Parallel, Pipelined Multiplier
42 Design of Arithmetic Circuits (Continued)
Verilog Code for Parallel Multiplier (Continued)
Test Bench for Parallel Multiplier
Simulation Results of Back Annotated Parallel Multiplier Design
Synplify and Xilinx Place & Route Results
43 System Design Examples
Verilog Code for Traffic Light Controller
Simulation Results of Traffic Light Controller Design
Synplify and Xilinx Place & Route Results
44 System Design Examples (Continued)
Test Bench for Traffic Light Controller
Introduction to Image/Video Compression
Block Diagram of a Video Encoder
A Novel, Parallel Algorithm for Fast Evaluation of Discrete Cosine Transform and Quantization (DCTQ)
45 System Design Examples (Continued)
Design of Discrete Cosine Transform and Quantization Processor
DCTQ Processor Block Diagram
Signal Description of DCTQ Processor
Architecture of DCTQ Processor
Sequence of Operations of a Host Processor and the DCTQ Processor
Verilog Codes for DCTQ Design
46 System Design Examples (Continued)
Verilog Codes for DCTQ Design (Continued)
DCTQ Top Design Code
Partial Products Register Code
DCTQ Controller Code
47 System Design Examples (Continued)
Verilog Code for DCTQ Design ' DCTQ Controller Code (Continued)
Test Bench for DCTQ Design
Synplify Results
Xilinx Place and Route Results
Analysis of Waveforms of DCTQ Design
Verification of Verilog DCTQ – IQIDCT Cores
Matlab Codes for Pre'processing and Post'processing of an Image
Results – Original and Reconstructed Image Example
Implementation Results of DCTQ, IQIDCT, DCT and IDCT Cores on FPGA/ASIC
Capabilities of IP Cores
48 System Design Examples using FPGA Board
Design Applications using FPGA Board
' Traffic Light Controller and Real Time Clock
XSV FPGA Board Features
Testing of FPGA Board
Setting the XSV Board Clock Oscillator Frequency
Downloading Configuration Bit Streams
49 System Design Examples using FPGA Board (Continued)
Features of Digital Input/Output Card
Typical Push Button Debouncing Circuit and Switch Interface Circuits
Typical Driving Circuit for Seven Segment and Discrete LEDs
Problem on FPGA Boards and its Solution
Hardware Setup for Traffic Light Controller
Demo of Traffic Light Controller
Revised Verilog Code Incorporating Blink Control and Pedestrian Crossing
50 Advanced Features of Xilinx Project Navigator
User Constraint File for Traffic Light Controller
Place and Route and Back Annotation Using Xilinx Project Navigator
' Command Summary of Navigator
Floor Plan
Simulation of Back Annotated File
51 System Design Examples using FPGA Board (Continued)
Real Time Clock Design
Features and Specification
Block Diagram and Signal Descriptions of Real Time Clock
Simplified Architecture of Real Time Clock
Verilog RTL Code for Real Time Clock
52 System Design Examples using FPGA Board (Continued)
Verilog RTL Code for Real Time Clock (Continued)
' Real Time Clock Code
' Stop Watch Code
53 System Design Examples using FPGA Board (Continued)
Stop Watch Implementation (Continued)
Alarms routine
Display ROM Sub'module
Test Bench for Real Time Clock
54 System Design Examples using FPGA Board (Continued)
Test Bench for Real Time Clock Design
User Constraint File for Real Time Clock Design
Synplify Results
Xilinx Place and Route Results
Waveform Analysis of the Real Time Clock Design
Demo of the Real Time Clock
55 Project Design Suggested for FPGA/ASIC Implementations
Projects Suggested for FPGA/ASIC Implementations
Issues Involved in Digital VLSI System Design
Detailed Specification for Electrostatic Precipitator Controller
Detailed Specification for JPEG/H.261/MPEG Codec
References
Conclusions
