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Title: Surveying
Department: Civil Engineering
Author: Prof. Bharat Lohani
University: IIT Kanpur
Type: WebLink
Abstract: BASIC SURVEYING or GEOINFORMATICS

1. INTRODUCTION:
Geoinformatics' definition, disciplines covered, importance.
Field Surveying' definition & objectives; concept of Geoid and reference spheroids, coordinate systems, plane and geodetic surveys.
Methods of location of a point' classification of surveys; principles of surveying
Errors in measurements' sources, types of errors and their treatment. Random error distribution, accuracy, precision and uncertainty. Surveying instruments' temporary and permanent adjustment concept, principle of reversal.
Maps' types, importance, scales/CI, conventional symbols, and generalization; topographic mapsmap projection systems, sheet numbering systems, map layout 8

2. LINEAR MEASUREMENTS:
Direct and indirect methods; Chain and tape measurements' corrections to tape measurements; Optical
methods' tacheometers, sub tense bar; Electronic methods' EDMs, total stations. 4


3. MEASUREMENT OF ELEVATIONS:
Various terms; Methods of height determination; Spirit leveling' different types of levels and staves; booking and reduction of data, classification and permissible closing error; profile leveling and cross sectioning; curvature & refraction and collimation errors; reciprocal leveling. 7
Contours' characteristics, uses and methods of contouring.

4. MEASUREMENT OF DIRECTIONS:
Bearings and angles; Compass surveying' magnetic bearings, declination, local attraction errors and adjustments; Theodolites' different types, uses, methods of observation and booking of data. 4

5. TRAVERSING, TRIANGULATION AND TRILATERATION:
Purpose and classification of each; Compass and theologize traverses' balancing of traverses, computation of coordinates, omitted measurements. Triangulation' network, strength of figures, field work' racy, selection of stations, inter'visibility, satellite stations, measurements and computations; trigonometrical leveling. 7

6. PLANE TABLING:
Merits and demerits, accessories; orientation and resection; methods of plane tabling; three point problem and solutions; errors in plane tabling.3

7. ADJUSTMENT COMPUTATIONS:
Propagation of errors, variance and covariance; Least squares principle and adjustment of field survey data by parametric and condition equation methods.5

8. PROJECT SURVEYS:
Engineering project surveys' requirements and specifications, various stages of survey work Setting out of works' buildings, culverts and simple circular curves.2

REFERENCES:

Surveying Vol. 1,2 &3 by KR Arora; BC Punmia; KK Rampal, (Indian authors)
Clarke &Cladenning; Moffit; Brinker and Wolf; W. Schofield; Norman Thomas; E Mikhail and Gracie; PR Wolf (Foreign authors)
 
   
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