Digital Systems; Data representation and coding; Logic circuits, integrated circuits; Analysis, design and implementation of digital systems; CAD tools.
2. Number Systems and Codes
Positional number system; Binary, octal and hexadecimal number systems; Methods of base conversions; Binary, octal and hexadecimal arithmetic; Representation of signed numbers; Fixed and floating point numbers; Binary coded decimal codes; Gray codes; Error detection and correction codes - parity check codes and Hamming code.
3. Combinatorial Logic Systems
Definition and specification; Truth table; Basic logic operation and logic gates.
4. Boolean Algebra and Switching Functions
Basic postulates and fundamental theorems of Boolean algebra; Standard
representation of logic functions - SOP and POS forms; Simplification of switching
functions - K-map and Quine-McCluskey tabular methods; Synthesis of combinational logic circuits.
5. Logic families
Introduction to different logic families; Operational characteristics of BJT in saturation and cut-off regions; Operational characteristics of MOSFET as switch; TTL inverter - circuit description and operation; CMOS inverter - circuit description and operation;Structure and operations of TTL and CMOS gates; Electrical characteristics of logic gates – logic levels and noise margins, fan-out, propagation delay, transition time, power consumption and power-delay product.
6. Combinational Logic Modules and their applications
Decoders, encoders, multiplexers, demultiplexers and their applications; Parity
circuits and comparators; Arithmetic modules- adders, subtractors and ALU; Design examples.
7. Sequential Logic systems:
Definition of state machines, state machine as a sequential controller; Basic
sequential circuits- latches and flip-flops: SR-latch, D-latch, D flip-flop, JK flip-flop, T flip-flop; Timing hazards and races; Analysis of state machines using D flip-flops and JK flip-flops; Design of state machines - state table, state assignment,
transition/excitation table, excitation maps and equations, logic realization; Design
8. State machine design approach
Designing state machine using ASM charts; Designing state machine using state
diagram; Design examples
9. Sequential logic modules and their applications
Multi-bit latches and registers, counters, shift register, application examples.
Read-only memory, read/write memory - SRAM and DRAM
11. Programmable Logic Devices:
PLAs, PALs and their applications; Sequential PLDs and their applications; State-
machine design with sequential PLDs; Introduction to field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs)